Semiotics as a science of signs Semiotics is a science that studies signs and sign processes.

Semiotics as a science of signs Semiotics is a science that studies signs and sign processes.

From the presence (truth) of the consequences is the transition to the existence (truth) of the supposed cause (version).

The conclusion in such inferences is correct because they are based on a single conditional judgments. In judicial cognition, for the supposed reason (version), not any consequences are deduced at all, but those that are unique in their individual totality.

The detection of such consequences is in fact a sufficient basis for a reliable conclusion about the reason (version) from which they are logically derived.

Indirect proof of the version is carried out by refuting all the proposed versions, except one, which is considered correct.

In logical terms, the indirect proof of the version takes the form of a negative-affirmative mode of distributive-categorical syllogism. It is carried out as follows. In the case under investigation, several versions are put forward: A, B, C. From each version, the consequences are derived and tested in practice. If during the investigation the falsity of versions B and C is established, then according to the rules of distributive-categorical syllogism the conclusion about the truth of version A is legitimate.

In judicial practice, not one, but several versions are put forward in each case. They are all checked in parallel.

Direct proof of a version is necessarily supplemented by its indirect proof: in order to recognize a version as correct, it is necessary not only to establish the facts that confirm it, but also to exclude (refute) all the latest versions.

Proving some version indirectly, refuting all the latest versions, it is necessary to establish at the same time positive facts that directly confirmed its correctness.


Zherebkin VE Logic. – Kharkiv-Kyiv, 1999. Kirillov VY, Starchenko AA Logic. M., 1995. Konversky AE Logic. K., 1998 Solodukhin SA Logic for lawyers. M., 1998. Toftul MG Logic. – K., 1999. Khomenko IV Logic-lawyers. K., 1997.


Language as a sign system. Semiotics as a science of signs. Abstract

Semiotics as a science of signs. The concept of a sign. Types of extravagant signs. Language signs. Language as a sign system. The structure of the sign process. The structure of the meaning of the sign. Typical logical errors. Measurements and levels of the sign process. The language of law

Semiotics as a science of signs

Semiotics is a science that studies signs and sign processes.

Semiotics is a young scientific discipline. It was formed only in the XX century, although approaches to the study of certain significant phenomena and processes can be found in the works of ancient and medieval scientists. The founders of this science are the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) and the American philosophers Charles Pierce (1839-1914) and Charles Morris (1901-1978). Ferdinand de Saussure tried to consider natural languages ​​as sign systems within a new scientific discipline, which he called "semiology." Charles Pierce introduced the term "semiotics" to the scientific community. Charles Morris in 1938 published the work "Fundamentals of Sign Theory" which became the first systematic presentation of semiotics as a science.

Semiotics at the present stage of its development is an interdisciplinary science. It does not have a clearly defined subject of study. Any phenomenon or process considered in terms of their symbolic embodiment can be the subject of analysis of this scientific discipline.

In this regard, currently research is conducted in the framework of legal semiotics, semiotics of medicine, semiotics of cinema, semiotics of music, psychoanalytic semiotics and more. All these sections refer to the so-called descriptive semiotics.

Descriptive semiotics is semiotics that studies specific sign systems.

In addition to descriptive, scientists also distinguish theoretical semiotics.

Theoretical semiotics is semiotics that studies the general properties and relations inherent in any sign systems, regardless of their material embodiment.

Theoretical semiotics is primarily interested in the general principles of construction of any sign systems, as well as general principles for their origin and functioning.

Theoretical semiotics includes logical semiotics, which deals with the analysis of natural and artificial languages ​​in various aspects of their functioning.

The concept of a sign. Types of extravagant signs

The main term in semiotics is "sign". Any reasoning can be represented as a chain of signs. What is a sign?

A sign is a certain empirical material object, which is perceived on a sensory level and acts in the process of communication and thinking of people as a representative of some other object.

The sign represents not only the object (object, phenomenon, process, action, event), but also the individual properties of objects and the relationship between them.

In semiotics, all signs are divided into linguistic and extralinguistic.

Extravagant marks, in turn, are divided into:

copy-signs (iconic signs), signs-signs (signs-signs, signs-indexes), signs-symbols.

Copy marks (iconic signs) are signs, the meaning of which is completely determined by the object to which they correspond.

Copy signs are combined on the principle of similarity, similarity of the object and its designation.

Examples of iconic symbols include photographs, paintings, fingerprints, mirrors, copies of documents, and so on.

Signs-signs (signs-signs, signs-indexes) are signs, the meaning of which is completely determined by the context in which they are found and denote the relationship between objects, as well as between the object and its properties.

Examples of such signs can be pronouns, some adverbs (here, now, tomorrow), the position of the weather vane, footprints in the snow. Smoke is a sign of fire, a broken car is a sign of a traffic accident on the road, car theft is a sign of a crime, unjustified dismissal of a person "x" from work is a sign of an offense, etc.

Symbols are signs that are not physically associated with the objects they denote. their values ​​are set mainly by conditional consent. In this regard, they acquire the status of a symbol and a universal rule.

Signs-symbols are something concrete (object, image), something that has its own personal meaning and, at the same time, reflects something general, abstract (concept, idea, hypothesis, concept). A "pure" sign differs from a sign-symbol in that the first simply denotes an object, but it itself has no personal meaning, does not carry any additional semantic information that can be interpreted, while the sign-symbol generalizes, abstractly reflects objects and their properties, as well as the phenomenon through its personal content, and establishes certain relationships of similarity, similarity between different objects and phenomena. For example, signs-symbols of Ukrainian culture – T. Shevchenko, L. Ukrainka, red viburnum, embroidered shirt, Easter egg, dance "Hopak" bandura, etc.; signs-symbols of the Ukrainian state – yellow-blue State flag, State emblem, National anthem, the description of which is given in Art. 20 of the Constitution of Ukraine.

In art, one or another image of real living beings or fictional objects often appears as a sign-symbol of abstract properties – intelligence, talent, courage, bravery, cunning, avarice, etc. For example, Sherlock Holmes – a symbol of the famous investigator (detective), a carrier of a high level of logical thinking.

Signs-symbols can be real individuals who, due to their socio-psychological characteristics in certain social conditions are carriers of general and abstract ideas. For example, in the history of mankind, the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates is perceived as a symbol of wisdom.

Symbolic signs are polysemous, that is, they have many meanings in different cultures and can be interpreted differently in different contexts. Signs-symbols are used in all kinds of practical and theoretical, material and spiritual activities of people – art, science, philosophy, religion, etc.

Symbols are also widely used in legal activities. For example, signs-symbols of the judiciary in Ukraine: in the meeting room there are images of the State Emblem of Ukraine and the State Flag of Ukraine. The symbols of the judiciary also include judges’ certificates, badges and mantles, samples of which are approved by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.

Examples of such signs can also be most natural language words, road signs, and so on.

Language as a sign system. Language signs

Varieties of signs are also linguistic signs, which can be either signs-symbols or signs-indexes. Man thinks with the help of language (natural or artificial), ie language is a means of thinking, a way of objectification and objectification of thought. Due to the fact that reasoning is usually expressed through language, in logic only linguistic signs are studied, other types of signs do not belong to the scope of its study.

Language is a sign system that serves as a means of expressing thoughts, a means of communication between people, a means of transmitting thoughts, knowledge, information from person to person, from generation to generation.

A language sign is a unit of language, ie letters, which consists of both sound signs (phonemes) and corresponding typographic and graphic signs.

Words are built from language signs, which are combined into sentences.

The main social functions of language signs: the designation of objects, the expression of the human spirit, thoughts, feelings, moods, desires, human needs; cognitive (a person learns the world through thinking, and thinking is realized through language); informational, ie with the help of language signs information, knowledge is transmitted from person to person, from generation to generation; communicative, ie the function of communication; culturological (language signs, sign systems are a means of assimilating national and universal culture by an individual or social group, a means of transmitting cultural traditions, personal and collective experience, skills, abilities).

All languages ​​are divided into natural (spoken) and artificial (formalized).

Natural (spoken) languages ​​arose historically, in the process of practical and theoretical activities of people. Natural languages ​​are also called national languages.

In natural language there are alphabet and grammar.

The alphabet is a set of signs (letters) from which words are built, and from words form sentences.

The set of all words available in any language is called vocabulary (Gr. – word).

Grammar is the rules by which words (sentences) build texts (a set of sentences).

Natural languages ​​function at different levels and in different forms, such as: everyday and scientific language, vernacular and literary language, the language of the media and professional, and so on.